python Log in user using either email address or username in Django




django email as username (6)

Updated version of the same snippet, with improved security. Also, it allow you to enable or disable case sensitive authentication. If you prefer, you can install it directly from pypi.

from django.contrib.auth.backends import ModelBackend
from django.contrib.auth import get_user_model
from django.conf import settings

###################################
"""  DEFAULT SETTINGS + ALIAS   """
###################################


try:
    am = settings.AUTHENTICATION_METHOD
except:
    am = 'both'
try:
    cs = settings.AUTHENTICATION_CASE_SENSITIVE
except:
    cs = 'both'

#####################
"""   EXCEPTIONS  """
#####################


VALID_AM = ['username', 'email', 'both']
VALID_CS = ['username', 'email', 'both', 'none']

if (am not in VALID_AM):
    raise Exception("Invalid value for AUTHENTICATION_METHOD in project "
                    "settings. Use 'username','email', or 'both'.")

if (cs not in VALID_CS):
    raise Exception("Invalid value for AUTHENTICATION_CASE_SENSITIVE in project "
                    "settings. Use 'username','email', 'both' or 'none'.")

############################
"""  OVERRIDDEN METHODS  """
############################


class DualAuthentication(ModelBackend):
    """
    This is a ModelBacked that allows authentication
    with either a username or an email address.
    """

    def authenticate(self, username=None, password=None):
        UserModel = get_user_model()
        try:
            if ((am == 'email') or (am == 'both')):
                if ((cs == 'email') or cs == 'both'):
                    kwargs = {'email': username}
                else:
                    kwargs = {'email__iexact': username}

                user = UserModel.objects.get(**kwargs)
            else:
                raise
        except:
            if ((am == 'username') or (am == 'both')):
                if ((cs == 'username') or cs == 'both'):
                    kwargs = {'username': username}
                else:
                kwargs = {'username__iexact': username}

                user = UserModel.objects.get(**kwargs)
        finally:
            try:
                if user.check_password(password):
                    return user
            except:
                # Run the default password hasher once to reduce the timing
                # difference between an existing and a non-existing user.
                UserModel().set_password(password)
                return None

    def get_user(self, username):
        UserModel = get_user_model()
        try:
            return UserModel.objects.get(pk=username)
        except UserModel.DoesNotExist:
            return None

I am trying to create an auth backend to allow my users to log in using either their email address or their username in Django 1.6 with a custom user model. The backend works when I log in with a user name but for some reason does not with an email. Is there something I am forgetting to do?

from django.conf import settings
from django.contrib.auth.models import User

class EmailOrUsernameModelBackend(object):
    """
    This is a ModelBacked that allows authentication with either a username or an email address.

    """
    def authenticate(self, username=None, password=None):
        if '@' in username:
            kwargs = {'email': username}
        else:
            kwargs = {'username': username}
        try:
            user = User.objects.get(**kwargs)
            if user.check_password(password):
                return user
        except User.DoesNotExist:
            return None

    def get_user(self, username):
        try:
            return User.objects.get(pk=username)
        except User.DoesNotExist:
            return None

Edit: As suggested I have inherited from ModelBackend and installed it in my settings In my settings I have this AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS = ( 'users.backends', 'django.contrib.auth.backends.ModelBackend', ) And I have changed the backend to this:

from django.conf import settings
from django.contrib.auth.models import User
from django.contrib.auth.backends import ModelBackend
class EmailOrUsernameModelBackend(ModelBackend):
    """
    This is a ModelBacked that allows authentication with either a username or an email address.

    """
    def authenticate(self, username=None, password=None):
        if '@' in username:
            kwargs = {'email': username}
        else:
            kwargs = {'username': username}
        try:
            user = User.objects.get(**kwargs)
            if user.check_password(password):
                return user
        except User.DoesNotExist:
            return None

    def get_user(self, username):
        try:
            return User.objects.get(pk=username)
        except User.DoesNotExist:
            return None

Now I get an Module "users" does not define a "backends" attribute/class error.


Answer #1

I know this is already answered, however I have found a real neat way to implement login with both e-mail and username using the Django auth views. I did not see anyone use this type of method so I thought I'd share it for simplicity's sake.

from django.contrib.auth.models import User


class EmailAuthBackend():
    def authenticate(self, username=None, password=None):
        try:
            user = User.objects.get(email=username)
            if user.check_password(raw_password=password):
                return user
            return None
        except User.DoesNotExist:
            return None

    def get_user(self, user_id):
        try:
            return User.objects.get(pk=user_id)
        except User.DoesNotExist:
            return None

Then in your settings.py add this

AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS = (
    'django.contrib.auth.backends.ModelBackend',
    'myapp.authentication.EmailAuthBackend',
)

Answer #2

I thought I'd chuck my simpler approach in for anyone else who comes across this:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from django.contrib.auth import backends, get_user_model
from django.db.models import Q


class ModelBackend(backends.ModelBackend):
    def authenticate(self, username=None, password=None, **kwargs):
        UserModel = get_user_model()

        try:
            user = UserModel.objects.get(Q(username__iexact=username) | Q(email__iexact=username))

            if user.check_password(password):
                return user
        except UserModel.DoesNotExist:
            # Run the default password hasher once to reduce the timing
            # difference between an existing and a non-existing user (#20760).
            UserModel().set_password(password)

Note:

  • disregards USERNAME_FIELD, although you could add it back in pretty easily
  • case insensitive (you could just remove the __iexact's though to make it not)

Answer #3

Yet another solution:

from django.contrib.auth import get_user_model
from django.contrib.auth.backends import ModelBackend
from django.db.models import Q


class EmailOrUsernameModelBackend(ModelBackend):
    """
    Authentication backend which allows users to authenticate using either their
    username or email address

    Source: https://.com/a/35836674/59984
    """

    def authenticate(self, request, username=None, password=None, **kwargs):
        # n.b. Django <2.1 does not pass the `request`

        user_model = get_user_model()

        if username is None:
            username = kwargs.get(user_model.USERNAME_FIELD)

        # The `username` field is allows to contain `@` characters so
        # technically a given email address could be present in either field,
        # possibly even for different users, so we'll query for all matching
        # records and test each one.
        users = user_model._default_manager.filter(
            Q(**{user_model.USERNAME_FIELD: username}) | Q(email__iexact=username)
        )

        # Test whether any matched user has the provided password:
        for user in users:
            if user.check_password(password):
                return user
        if not users:
            # Run the default password hasher once to reduce the timing
            # difference between an existing and a non-existing user (see
            # https://code.djangoproject.com/ticket/20760)
            user_model().set_password(password)

Fixes:

  • By default, @ is not prohibited in the username field, so unless custom User model prohibits @ symbol, it can't be used to distinguish between username and email.
  • Technically, there can be two users using the same email, one in the email field, the other in the username. Unless such possibility is restricted, it can lead to either user not being able to authenticate, or unhandled MultipleObjectsReturned exception if UserModel._default_manager.get(Q(username__iexact=username) | Q(email__iexact=username)) is used.
  • Catching any exception with except: is generally bad practice

Downside - if there are two users, using the same email, one in the username, the other in email, and they have the same password, then it's prone to authenticating the first match. I guess the chances of this is highly unlikely.

Also note: any of the approaches should enforce unique email field in the User model, since the default User model does not define unique email, which would lead to either unhandled exception in case User.objects.get(email__iexact="...") is used, or authenticating the first match. In any case, using email to login assumes that email is unique.


Answer #4

Here's a work-around that doesn't require modifying the authentication backend at all.

First, look at the example login view from Django.

from django.contrib.auth import authenticate, login

def my_view(request):
    username = request.POST['username']
    password = request.POST['password']
    user = authenticate(username=username, password=password)
    if user is not None:
        login(request, user)
        # Redirect to a success page.
        ...
    else:
        # Return an 'invalid login' error message.
        ...

If authentication with the username fails we can check if there is an email match, get the corresponding username, and try to authenticate again.

from django.contrib.auth import authenticate, login, get_user_model

def my_view(request):
    username = request.POST['username']
    password = request.POST['password']
    user = authenticate(username=username, password=password)
    if user is None:
        User = get_user_model()
        user_queryset = User.objects.all().filter(email__iexact=username)
        if user_queryset:
            username = user_queryset[0].username
            user = authenticate(username=username, password=password)
    if user is not None:
        login(request, user)
        # Redirect to a success page.
        ...
    else:
        # Return an 'invalid login' error message.
        ...

Similar to 1bit0fMe's example, email should be a unique field and there is the same (highly unlikely) downside that they mentioned.

I would only recommend this approach if all login on your site is handled by a single view or form. Otherwise, it would be better to modify the authenticate() method itself in the backend to avoid creating multiple points of potential failure.


Answer #5

After following the advice given to me above and changing AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS = ['yourapp.yourfile.EmailOrUsernameModelBackend'] I was getting the error Manager isn't available; User has been swapped for 'users.User'. This was caused because I was using the default User model instead of my own custom one. Here is the working code.

from django.conf import settings
from django.contrib.auth import get_user_model

class EmailOrUsernameModelBackend(object):
    """
    This is a ModelBacked that allows authentication with either a username or an email address.

    """
    def authenticate(self, username=None, password=None):
        if '@' in username:
            kwargs = {'email': username}
        else:
            kwargs = {'username': username}
        try:
            user = get_user_model().objects.get(**kwargs)
            if user.check_password(password):
                return user
        except User.DoesNotExist:
            return None

    def get_user(self, username):
        try:
            return get_user_model().objects.get(pk=username)
        except get_user_model().DoesNotExist:
            return None




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